Effects of annealing on Sn whisker formation under temperature cycling and isothermal storage conditions


Lee, Hua-Xing and Chan, Kah-Yoong and Shukor, Mohd Hamdi Abdul (2011) Effects of annealing on Sn whisker formation under temperature cycling and isothermal storage conditions. IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, 1 (7). pp. 1110-1115. ISSN 2156-3950

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The global move toward reducing the usage of lead in electronics manufacturing industry is driving the industry to switch from tin-lead alloys to pure tin (Sn) for its component plating process. This transition has resulted in a reliability concern due to the formation of conductive Sn whiskers, which can grow from the component after the plating process within a few hours to months, with their length ranging from 10 micrometers up to several millimeters. The conductive Sn whiskers may cause current leakage or short circuits, leading to catastrophic failure in the field. This paper presents the results of an experimental study on Sn whisker formation based on the effects of annealing for 1 h at 150°C and environmental test conditions from the joint electron devices engineering council standards. This paper consisted of one temperature cycling test and two isothermal storage tests. The characterization results obtained confirm that temperature cycling and isothermal storage favor the formation of whiskers on Sn-plated copper lead frames. The average maximum length of the whiskers increased with the number of temperature cycles and duration of isothermal storage. It is also shown that annealing for 1 h at 150°C of the samples is effective in reducing the average maximum length of whiskers. Growth mechanisms of the Sn whiskers due to the effects of annealing and without annealing are also discussed.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering (FOE)
Depositing User: Ms Rosnani Abd Wahab
Date Deposited: 24 Jan 2014 07:41
Last Modified: 24 Jan 2014 07:41
URII: http://shdl.mmu.edu.my/id/eprint/4995


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