Effects of anthropomorphism design on emotional and cognitive outcomes in a video based learning


Pang, Wei Ming (2022) Effects of anthropomorphism design on emotional and cognitive outcomes in a video based learning. Masters thesis, Multimedia University.

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Official URL: http://erep.mmu.edu.my/


A multimedia environment delivers a lesson through multimedia elements such as image, video, animation, sound, and narration. Learners learn from a multimedia learning environment by selecting and processing visual and verbal aspects of the media and integrating them into the working memory to form a mental coherence of learning material in the cognitive process known as multimedia learning. Research on the role of emotional design in multimedia learning has shown that manipulating colours, shapes, and anthropomorphism of e-learning graphics can affect learning outcomes through changes in motivation, emotion, and cognitive load of the learners. In particular, this research focused on anthropomorphism design in multimedia learning, which refers to instructional design that gives human-like characteristics to nonliving objects in e-learning materials. For instance, in the context of an e-learning material that delivers a lesson on Distributed Denial of service (DDoS) attack, e-learning designers can affix facial expressions, emotional displays, and life-like dialogue to multimedia graphics depicting computers, servers, networks, and computer viruses. At the same time, the emerging theory on anthropomorphism design in multimedia learning has suggested that such design can promote positive emotion, motivation, cognitive load and learning outcomes. However, recent studies have produced mixed results. Hence, this study aims to extend the prior studies by examining the effects of anthropomorphism design (experimental condition) against non-anthropomorphism design (control condition) in e-learning about Distributed Denial of service (DDoS) on positive emotion, motivation, cognitive load, and learning outcome. This study employs a controlled experiment in which participants would interact with either the e-learning with an anthropomorphism or a non-anthropomorphism design. Afterwards, participants completed the surveys and post-test to measure positive emotion, motivation, cognitive load, and learning outcome. The statistical analysis assessed the differential effects of anthropomorphism (experimental condition) versus non-anthropomorphism design (control condition) on positive emotion, motivation, cognitive load and learning outcome. The results found that the anthropomorphised multimedia lesson evoked a significantly greater change of positive affect but did not affect intrinsic motivation and learning outcomes differently than the non-anthropomorphised version. Concerning cognitive load, anthropomorphism led to significantly lower perceived difficulty regarding the learning topic (intrinsic load), which conforms with most emotional design findings. The results also found that the anthropomorphism effect does not differently affect high-prior-knowledge and low-prior-knowledge learners for the factors: positive affect, motivation, cognitive load, and learning outcomes. This study offers insights into anthropomorphism in multimedia learning that extends to cultural factors unique to Asian learners and the information technology subject domain. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed through the lens of the cognitive-affective theory of learning with media and cognitive load theory. Lastly, due to the study having a small sample size; thus, the result might not be able to apply generally, and this study struggles to manage the online experiment design due to the inability to monitor participants during the experiment.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Additional Information: Call No.: LB1062 .P36 2022
Uncontrolled Keywords: Cognitive learning
Subjects: L Education > LB Theory and practice of education > LB1060 Learning
Divisions: Faculty of Information Science and Technology (FIST)
Depositing User: Ms Nurul Iqtiani Ahmad
Date Deposited: 18 Jul 2023 05:03
Last Modified: 18 Jul 2023 05:03
URII: http://shdl.mmu.edu.my/id/eprint/11542


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