RPLAD3: anomaly detection of blackhole, grayhole, and selective forwarding attacks in wireless sensor network-based Internet of Things


Alansari, Zainab and Anuar, Nor Badrul and Kamsin, Amirrudin and Belgaum, Mohammad Riyaz (2023) RPLAD3: anomaly detection of blackhole, grayhole, and selective forwarding attacks in wireless sensor network-based Internet of Things. PeerJ Computer Science, 9. e1309. ISSN 2376-5992

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Routing protocols transmit vast amounts of sensor data between the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) and the Internet of Things (IoT) gateway. One of these routing protocols is Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks (RPL). The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) defined RPL in March 2012 as a de facto distance-vector routing protocol for wireless communications with lower energy. Although RPL messages use a cryptographic algorithm for security protection, it does not help prevent internal attacks. These attacks drop some or all packets, such as blackhole or selective forwarding attacks, or change data packets, like grayhole attacks. The RPL protocol needs to be strengthened to address such an issue, as only a limited number of studies have been conducted on detecting internal attacks. Moreover, earlier research should have considered the mobility framework, a vital feature of the IoT. This article presents a novel lightweight system for anomaly detection of grayhole, blackhole, and selective forwarding attacks. The study aims to use a trust model in the RPL protocol, considering attack detection under mobility frameworks. The proposed system, anomaly detection of three RPL attacks (RPLAD3), is designed in four layers and starts operating immediately after the initial state of the network. The experiments demonstrated that RPLAD3 outperforms the RPL protocol when defeating attacks with high accuracy and a true positive ratio while lowering power and energy consumption. In addition, it significantly improves the packet delivery ratio and decreases the false positive ratio to zero.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: s Wireless sensor network, Internet of Things, Routing attacks, Network layer attacks, RPL protocol, Grayhole attack, Blackhole attack, Selective forwarding attack, Anomaly detection, Internal attacks
Subjects: T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics Nuclear engineering > TK5101-6720 Telecommunication. Including telegraphy, telephone, radio, radar, television
Divisions: Faculty of Information Science and Technology (FIST)
Depositing User: Ms Nurul Iqtiani Ahmad
Date Deposited: 02 Jun 2023 02:14
Last Modified: 02 Jun 2023 02:14
URII: http://shdl.mmu.edu.my/id/eprint/11462


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