Beamforming networks using the Nolen matrix for 5G applications


Keriee, Hussam and Rahim, Mohamad Kamal A. and Ayop, Osman and Nayyef Zubaidi, Nawres Abbas (2023) Beamforming networks using the Nolen matrix for 5G applications. Waves in Random and Complex Media. pp. 1-21. ISSN 1745-5030

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A design of a wideband low loss 3 × 3 Nolen matrix is presented at 3.5 GHz. The proposed Nolen matrix is designed with the implementation of three branch-line couplers and two phase shifters. The interdigital capacitor unit cell is implemented in both the coupler and phase shifter to reduce the size and improve the bandwidth. The proposed 3 × 3 Nolen matrix is simulated using computer simulation technology (CST) software and then fabricated on the FR4 substrate with (εr=4.4andh=1.6 mm) . The 3 × 3 Nolen matrix performance is achieved with a fractional bandwidth of 49% and operates at 2.52–4.2 GHz. The coupling factor of the 3 × 3 Nolen matrix across outputs at 3.5 GHz is −6 ± 0.98 dB with phase differences of 3.37° at port 1, 125.6° at port 2, and −117.8° at port 3. Then, the proposed Nolen matrix is attached with three standard microstrip antennas to prove the property of a unique beam scanning. The measured results approve the concept of three different phases scanning at 0°, 45°, and −40° with a reflection coefficient below −10 dB. Compared to the conventional Nolen matrix, the 3 × 3 Nolen matrix with a modified coupler is achieved with a low loss characteristics with phase error up to 2.2° and a compact size of 0.82 λ × 0.75 λ. The proposed Nolen matrix is suitable to be used in future 5G antenna beamforming applications.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Antenna beamforming, low loss, Nolen matrix, wideband, 5G
Subjects: T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics Nuclear engineering > TK5101-6720 Telecommunication. Including telegraphy, telephone, radio, radar, television
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering and Technology (FET)
Depositing User: Ms Nurul Iqtiani Ahmad
Date Deposited: 01 Mar 2023 02:09
Last Modified: 01 Mar 2023 02:09


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