Recent Developments of Butler Matrix From Components Design Evolution to System Integration for 5G Beamforming Applications: A Survey


Shallah, Abdulkadir Bello and Zubir, Farid and Rahim, Mohamad Kamal A. and Majid, Huda A. and Ullah Sheikh, Usman and Murad, Noor Asniza and Yusoff, Zubaida (2022) Recent Developments of Butler Matrix From Components Design Evolution to System Integration for 5G Beamforming Applications: A Survey. IEEE Access, 10. pp. 88434-88456. ISSN 2169-3536

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Beamforming networks for multiple beam antennas are believed to be in the vanguard of technological developments in mmWave for 5G wireless applications. The basic idea of beamforming technique is the application of multiple antenna elements radiating the same signal at an identical phase and wavelength, into one strong signal pointed to a specific direction. For low cost and power consumption, radio frequency beamforming networks (RF-BFNs) such as Blass matrices, Butler matrices, and Nolen matrices will play a critical role in achieving the ever-increasing demands in wireless technology. Therefore, this study aims to present a comprehensive survey and developments of RF-BFNs with (particular focus in Butler matrices). From the fundamental perspectives of the beamforming techniques and progress over time, component evolution includes branch-line coupler (BLC), Phase shifter (PS), and Crossovers to complete system Butler matrix (BM) integration. Different design techniques to improve bandwidth, size reduction, multi-band, and other performance characteristics are discussed extensively. Furthermore, the paper also discusses different geometry of Butler matrices in open microstrip transmission lines, substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) and gap waveguide (GWG) technologies highlighting key developments and research challenges from single band to dual-band operations. We expect this paper to provide more profound insights into the designs processes and suggest suitable ways to facilitate further developments of RF-beamforming networks at mmWave and sub-mmWave frequency ranges.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Beamforming networks (BFNs), Butler matrix (BM), fifth-generation 5G), metamaterial (MTM), millimetre-waves (mmWave), substrate ntegrated waveguide (SIW), gap waveguide (GWG), ridge gap aveguide (RGW), groove gap waveguide (GGW)
Subjects: T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics Nuclear engineering > TK5101-6720 Telecommunication. Including telegraphy, telephone, radio, radar, television
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering (FOE)
Depositing User: Ms Nurul Iqtiani Ahmad
Date Deposited: 07 Oct 2022 03:05
Last Modified: 07 Oct 2022 03:05


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