Does country with multi-ethnic, multi-linguistic and multi-religious society induce tourist arrivals? Worldwide evidence


Tan, Siow Hooi and Habibullah, Muzafar Shah and Haji Din, Badariah (2018) Does country with multi-ethnic, multi-linguistic and multi-religious society induce tourist arrivals? Worldwide evidence. Jurnal Ekonomi Malaysia, 52 (1). pp. 105-115. ISSN E-ISSN: 0126-1962 Print ISSN: 0126-1962

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The tourism sector contributes foreign exchange earnings to the nation; tax revenue to the government; and provide jobs to the population as well as open-up business opportunities to the communities. Thus, international tourist arrivals play a central role in stimulating economic growth by ensuring substantial export income in the form of international tourist expenditures to a destination country. A fundamental question that relates international visitors and the destination country is: “Does diversity play an important role in promoting tourism?” Studies have found that ethno-linguistic diversity affect a country’s tourism competitiveness negatively. This is because high levels of ethnic diversity tend to be associated with low investment, poor governance as a result of poor communication, low collective action and weak cohesion due to differences in ethnic groups’ value system. In this study, using a sample of 126 countries, our results suggest that ethnic, linguistic, and religious fractionalization negatively affected the destination choice of international tourist arrivals. Nevertheless, national income and safety of a country have positive impact on tourist arrivals, but air pollution affects negatively tourist arrivals to a destination country. Some policy implications that would promote tourism are that a country needs to promote and portray multi-racial country that are safe, peoples enjoy diversity in culture and lived in harmony; good facilities and infrastructure related to tourism; and less pollution.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Heritage tourism, Tourism demand, tourist arrivals, diversity, cross-country analysis
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > G Geography > G1-922 Geography (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Management (FOM)
Depositing User: Ms Suzilawati Abu Samah
Date Deposited: 05 Nov 2020 19:37
Last Modified: 05 Nov 2020 19:37


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