Initial Survey Validation for the Impact of Intellectual Capital on Frugal Innovation


Jayabalan, Jayamalathi and Dorasamy, Magiswary and Raman, Murali (2022) Initial Survey Validation for the Impact of Intellectual Capital on Frugal Innovation. International Journal of Technology, 13 (5). p. 1126. ISSN 2086-9614

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The rapidly developing Covid-19 epidemic has resulted in nationwide lockdowns, putting many higher learning institutions (HLIs) at risk of extinction due to low profitability and limited finance. This upheaval has increased the pressure on institutions to capitalize on their intellectual resources and develop new economic models. HLIs are turning towards digital transformation as e-learning has become the new normal. This paper explains how pretest and pilot tests were used to improve the methodological reliability of research instruments and suggests that it should be a common step in research instrument development. Pretest, which consists of expert review, cognitive interviewing, and pilot testing, were carried out to manage challenges due to dissimilar context emerging from geographic, linguistic, and cultural differences as the instrument was adopted from past literature. Six professional experts were chosen for face validation, followed by a cognitive interview with 10 ten respondents from the actual respondent's list, which is the management of private university listed in SETARA Listing 2018. Pilot testing consisting of 30 respondents was conducted in the second stage to check reliability and validity. Results from expert review and cognitive interviewing allowed the researcher to quickly resolve issues based on 'respondents' feedback on the wording problems, relevance, and usability of the questionnaire. The results from the pilot test reliability analysis revealed that the scales had good internal consistency. Researchers were able to alter research instruments and enhance the research design because of the detailed pretest and pilot study conducted, which will guide the substantive investigation. This was an important aspect of the pretest and piloting phase since it allowed us to identify issues with the instruments' efficacy and the model transferability to the Malaysian private HLIs context.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Intellectual capital, Frugal innovation, Information technology capability, Pre-test, Pilot test
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HD Industries. Land use. Labor > HD28-70 Management. Industrial Management > HD53 Intellectual work. Intellectual capital
Divisions: Faculty of Management (FOM)
Depositing User: Ms Nurul Iqtiani Ahmad
Date Deposited: 31 Oct 2022 03:30
Last Modified: 31 Oct 2022 03:30


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